The content of soil organic matter is closely related to the level of soil fertility. Although organic matter only accounts for a small part of the total amount of soil, it plays a significant role in maintaining soil fertility. The manufacturer of organic fertilizer production equipment introduces six important functions of organic matter to maintain soil fertility.
1. Provide nutrition for plants
Soil organic matter contains a large number of plant nutrient elements, such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Sn, Fe and other important elements, as well as some trace elements. Soil organic matter releases a large number of nutrients through the mineralization process to provide nutrients for plant growth; humification synthesizes humus and saves nutrients, and humus releases nutrients again through the mineralization process, thereby ensuring nutrient requirements throughout the plant growth process.
2. Promote the absorption of other nutrients by plants
In the process of decomposition and transformation of soil organic matter, the organic acids and humic acids produced have certain dissolving ability to the mineral part of soil, can promote the mineral differentiation, and is conducive to the effectiveness of some nutrients. Some metal ions complexed with organic acids can be retained in the soil solution, which will not cause precipitation and affect its effectiveness.
3. Promote plant growth and development
Soil organic matter, especially the polyphenol functional group, can enhance the process of plant respiration, improve the permeability of cell membrane, promote the rapid entry of nutrients into the plant, and promote the growth of plant roots. Soil organic matter also contains vitamin B1, B2, pyrrolic acid, niacin, hormone, IAA (β - indoleacetic acid), antibiotics (streptomycin, penicillin) and so on, which can promote the growth of plants and enhance their disease resistance.
4. Improve soil physical properties
There are many functions of organic matter in improving the physical properties of soil. The most important and direct function is to improve the soil structure, promote the formation of aggregate structure, so as to increase the looseness of soil and improve the air and water permeability of soil. Humus is the main cement of soil aggregate. Humus in soil seldom exists in free state. Most of humus and mineral soil particles combine with each other. Through the mechanism of functional group and hydrogen bond, humus is wrapped on the surface of mineral soil particles in the form of glue film, forming organic-inorganic complex. The agglomerates, with reasonable distribution of large and small pores and strong water stability, are good structures. In arid area, the organic matter can reduce the swelling and shrinkage of soil by improving the viscosity of soil, and prevent the large cracks when the soil is dry.
5. Provide energy for soil organisms
Without soil microbes, there would not be all the biochemical processes in the soil. The population, quantity and activity of soil microorganism increased with the increase of organic matter content, which had a significant positive correlation. The mineralization rate of soil organic matter is low, which will not produce the rapid stimulation effect on microorganisms like the fresh plant residues, but provide energy for microorganisms in a sustained and stable way. Therefore, the soil rich in organic matter has stable and long-term fertility, which is not easy to cause the phenomenon of excessive growth and fertilizer removal of plants.
6. Activate phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients
In general, the phosphorus in the soil pool does not exist in the quick acting state, but in the slow acting state and slow acting state, so the availability of phosphorus in the soil is low; the organic matter of the soil has the characteristics of reacting with the insoluble phosphorus, which can increase the solubility of phosphorus, so as to improve the availability of phosphorus in the soil and the utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer.
Organic matter plays an important role in the soil. Organic matter is processed into a ball by the organic fertilizer granulator, and is widely applied in the farmland to maintain the soil fertility. The crop yield has been greatly improved.